Old Romanian writing was dominated by textual models and patterns assimilated by way of influences or the exclusive mediation of Slavonic.
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Two linguistic writings, Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum Caransebe, about forum internațional de dating, the first original dictionary based on the Romanian language, and Institutiones linguae Valachicae Criana, vikower dating websitethe first grammar of the Romanian language written in Latin, attest to the explicit use of a Latin model in an age in which the whole of our culture was still strongly influenced by Gna dating models.
Keywords: History of the Romanian language, old Romanian literature, Latin model, linguistic writings. The period of old Romanian literary writing comes under consideration, in publications intended for the public at large, but also in some specialist studies presenting an overview of the literary production until the end of the 18th century, at the dawn of the Transylvanian Enlightenment, as a period dominated by the Slavonic cultural model.
This opinion persisted even after the discovery of some humanistic elements in the vikower dating website of certain Romanian scholars writing during the troubled decades of the 17th and 18th centuries, scholars who studied and 7 Diversit et Identit Culturelle en Europe used Latin, such as Miron and Nicolae Costin or Dimitrie Cantemir.
This is the case even after it was noted that, at the end of the 17th century and in the early s, several texts vikower dating website from Western Europe were transposed or adapted into Romanian, being meant to satisfy the need for knowledge and instruction of the intellectuals in the Romanian space.
For example, Im thinking of the translation of some vikower dating website prognoses written in Italian for the use of Constantin Brncoveanu, under the common title of Foletul Novel Newssheet ; at the adaptation into Romanian of the most widely read Western novel of the time, under the title Ceasornicul domnilor The Princes Clock by Vikower dating website Costin, the scholarly son of the renowned Moldavian chronicler; or the adaptation, in a manner which comes very close to what nowadays vikower dating website be described as an original writing, by the learned Wallach Teodor Corbea, of the first Latin-Romanian encyclopaedic dictionary, entitled Dictiones Latinae cum Valachica interpretatione.
Realised with the subsidy of Father Mitrofan, bishop for Buzu a remarkable fact not only for the end of the 17th century who was a clergyman renowned for his great open-mindedness and his remarkable cultural activity, Teodor Corbeas work includes 37, entries, a figure hard to attain even in a modern lexicographic work1.
Their wives are fed up with their behavior, and grant them a 'hall pass': a week off their marriage allowing them to do anything. But the guys take their time and their week is almost up. Comentariu: Fred si Rick sunt buni prieteni si au o multime de lucruri in comun, incepand cu faptul ca amandoi sunt casatoriti de foarte multi ani si au inceput sa resimta efectele crizei sentimentale de la varsta a doua. Atunci cand sotiile lor remarca cu stupoare ca barbatii nu mai sunt interesati de placerile nevinovate pe care le ofera viata de cuplu si nu se sfiesc sa intoarca capul dupa alte femei mai tinere si mai voluptuoase decat ele, decid sa le ofere lui Fred si lui Rick o saptamana de libertate absoluta, in care sa uite ca sunt insurati si sa isi satisfaca toate poftele fara sa se teama de consecinte. Initial, cei doi prieteni au impresia ca visurile lor intime s-au transformat in realitate si sunt convinsi ca, de indata ce isi vor pune in functiune capacitatile de seductie de care dispuneau odinioara, nu va exista nicio femeie care sa nu le cada in mreje si vikower dating website care sa nu o poata vari in asternut.
The idea regarding the predominance of the Slavonic cultural model in old Romanian writing continued to persist in some studies, even after it was observed that, around the s, Romanian ar trebui să continuați să întâlniți become the official language of culture and after our elevated literary writing had adopted and included in the everyday lexis over 1, neologisms of Latin-Romanic origin even before beginning from the first half of the 15th century, when Romanian was only a language of everyday, interpersonal communication 2.
This had been adopted as a way of overcoming the difficulties of expressing some new realities that Romanians had encountered through ever increasing contacts with the Western cultural space.
" Она вновь припомнила свою встречу с семьей и друзьями. "Полагаю, что Орел знает, зачем я еще нужна. Но даже если у него нет для меня конкретного поручения. я еще не стала беспомощным инвалидом и могу помочь".
It was a recourse attested by common speech, where some longstanding Latin-Romanic loans were so well integrated into everyday usage 1 For the text edition and its main characteristics, see the edition by Alin-Mihai Gherman, Teodor Corbea, Dictiones Latinae cum Valachica interpretatione, Clusium, [Cluj-Napoca], Diversit et Identit Culturelle en Europe that their modern clothing changed beyond recognition.
Im thinking of cprar, a loan word from the beginning of the 18th century, from Italian or from mediaeval Latin, mediated by the Polish word capra corporal. There was also the savant method of creating terminologies in various domains of scientific activity, subsequently abandoned because of the competition exercised by direct savant borrowings, after the changing of the sfaturi online dating sfaturi cultural attitude.
I have in mind the structural or semantic loan translation, by which the grammatical case, for example, was called cdere fall in 17th and 18th century texts. The Slavonic mediation could not change the effect of the first Greco-Latin model. Thus, Marea cea din mijloc de pmnt the Midland Sea designated the Mediterranean Sea in our first geographical writings.
Но у _тебя_ была свадьба, Ричард.
This answer, characteristic of the self-sufficiency gained by the cultured man, and ornate with the attendant explanatory parenthesis, goes as follows: Eu pe mine niciodat nu m chem au n-locul-numelui gramatica n-ai citit, unde arat c m n-locul-numelui eu de cderea-cea-chemtoare se lipsete?
However, for the theme discussed here, the references made so far, which can be supplemented by many others I am thinking, for example, of the influences of Latin writing recorded by specialists in texts written in the Cyrillic alphabet or of the influences of the same orthographic model acting upon some texts written in a Magyar, Polish or German orthographic mannerhave, on the whole, a smaller importance than two original writings, both belonging to the linguistic domain, in which the Latin model was integrally adopted.
It is the case of two very important old Romanian texts, little known, unfortunately, not only in philological education: the first dictionary with a Diversit et Identit Culturelle en Europe Romanian basis, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum3, and the first original grammar of the Romanian language, written in Latin, entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae4.
Both are entirely original texts, meant to present the structure and characteristics of the Romanian language to foreigners who know or speak Latin.
The presence in the two titles of the determiner Valachicum explicitly indicates the cultural belonging of the intended readership. The first original dictionary of the Romanian language, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, is kept in the manuscript section of the University Library Etvs Lornd in Budapest, where it could have ended up through an acquisition from the first half of the 19th century.
The characteristics of the paper the colour, consistency and origin and of the handwriting the sort of ink and the shape of the lettersas well as the aspect of some of the pages show that the volume we know today resulted from the joining of two independent manuscripts. The other 91 pages were added at the beginning of the 18th century for the copying of several Latin quotations Connotationes ex adagiisalphabetically ordered, but due to the small number of fragments transcribed, most of the pages were left blank.
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The two parts of the manuscript were adjoined beforewhen one of the owners of the lexicon, an envoy of the Western Church, wrote down the names of several places he visited in southern Transylvania and in Hunedoara, in an Itinerarium written on the last pages. Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum is written vikower dating website a sole person, in Latin alphabet and Magyar orthography.
The author of the text, a Romanian intellectual who knew Latin very well, also made numerous modifications in 3 The text was edited in the volume Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucureti, For details regarding the text see the volume entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae.
The lexicon was also annotated in several places by three later readers, one of whom translated a few title entries into Hungarian.
The paper fibre analysis of the older part of the manuscript in the University Library in Budapest shows that Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum was written around the year According to the opinion formulated by B. Hasdeu, the discoverer and first exegete of the text, it had been written in the last decades of the 17th century, while Grigore Creu, the author of the first complete edition, dated vikower dating website writing of the lexicon around A series of linguistic particularities phonetic forms and regional dialect wordsthe use of Hungarian orthography for the writing of Romanian words, as well as the presence as separate entries of several place names in the south-western corner of Romania prove that the text was compiled in the Caransebe area.
For this reason, Grigore Creu called the lexicon Anonymus Caransebesiensis, thus replacing the old name, Anonymus Lugoshiensis, given by B. Hasdeu, who considered that this first Romanian-Latin dictionary was compiled in the surroundings of Lugoj.
The author of the writing, an anonymous intellectual, erroneously identified by some researchers as being Mihail Halici, must have belonged to the cultural movement in Banat, which is illustrated, in the 17th and 18th centuries, by several manuscripts using the Latin alphabet. These were mainly copies of the Romanian translation of the Calvinist Songbook Cartea de cntece.
The first ample lexicographic writing accomplished in the Romanian space, based on the Romanian language and written with Latin letters is of particular importance for examining the evolution of our old literary writing. The author of the text was extremely versed in both the Latin language he sometimes recorded forms, spellings and meanings rarely attested in texts and the Romanian language in the latter case, in both its literary variant and its specific dialectal idiom of Banat at the middle of the 17th century.
Among the words registered one can distinguish, as it became evident the very moment the manuscript was discovered in the summer ofan extremely rich corpus of regional dialect words, most of them originating in Magyar and Serbian, though many are old forms inherited from Latin or 11 Diversit et Identit Culturelle en Europe lexemes with a still unknown etymology.
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Many entries represent the first attestations allowing the dating back to an earlier period of the known records for several lexical forms and variants. Several entries constitute the first attestations of some neologisms of Latin or Greek origin:.
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