Dating inkwells

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Cu alte cuvinte, singularitatea cristalurilor provine din faptul ca procedurile tehnologice folosite in productia lor pot fi utilizate pentru serii mai mari de obiecte, mai rapid si la preturi rezonabile, fara a exclude sticlarul din acest proces si fara pierdere de calitate in comparatie cu produsele similare de lux manufacturate.

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Nu este atunci surprinzator ca inventivitatea metodelor dezvoltate in zona muntelui Jizera de ingineri, ajustori si sticlari, dar si viziunea antreprenorilor si investitorilor locali au facut ca recipientele de parfum, calimarile si accesoriile de masa produse in acest fel sa fie cat mai prezente pe piata mondiala.

Din perspectiva productiei, cristalurile de Boemia s-au sprijinit intotdeauna pe doua aspecte fundamentale — calitatea sticlei si tiparele de metal facute cu precizie.

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Pasta de cristal care sa nu se decoloreze in prezenta luminii a carei culoare sa ramana constanta era deja prelucrata in secolul al XIX-lea in zona muntoasa Jizera. Aceasta pasta putea fi prelucrata cu usurinta prin suflare, presare sau turnare in tipare de metal. Produsele erau taiate manual si, de regula, doar re-taiate dupa presare, ceea ce facea ca pretul sa scada fara a afecta calitatea. Actualmente deosebim doua tipuri de cristaluri de Boemia in functie de metoda de productie — prin taiere si prin presare.

In vreme dating inkwells primul tip reprezinta, practic, sticla suflata, a carei forma este obtinuta dating inkwells ajutorul unui tipar, fiind apoi slefuita, al doilea tip se obtine prin presare folosind tipare cu dating inkwells de presare.

Oricum, chiar si in acest caz, creativitatea proiectului si experienta sticlarului reprezinta o componenta esentiala a procesului de productie, ceea ce face de fapt diferenta intre cristal si sticla presata comuna.

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Cristalurile pot fi impartite in trei categorii de productie majore. Prima dintre acestea cuprinde flacoanele de toate tipurile, a doua categorie este cea a candelabrelor iar a treia include cristaluri in general; cu alte cuvinte, articole de birou prese de hartie, calimari, riglearticole de sticla decorative si utilitare, recipiente pentru bauturi, vaze etc. Piesele ornamentale au fost de asemenea incluse in categoria cristalurilor.

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Oricum, acestea au devenit o ramura de productie separata inainte de secolul al XIX-lea datorita cresterii vanzarilor. Exista pe atunci un interes sustinut in lume pentru acest tip de sticlarie.

Intr-adevar, in prima treime a secolului al XIX-lea, aproximativ un milion de ciucuri de candelabru au fost produsi anual in aceasta regiune. Nu e de mirare ca existau aici, in acea perioada, in jur de de ateliere de taiat sticla si 15 ateliere de presat sticla. Catre existau in zona Jablonec de ateliere de taiat si 24 de ateliere de presat sticla.

In orice caz, productia de ciucuri a ramas la nivelul de un milion pe an. Un usor declin a survenit in perioada o data cu criza economica mondiala. Cele mai populare articole erau greutatile de hartie press-papiercalimarile, flacoanele si, mai tarziu, dating inkwells cand cererea de cristaluri a crescut din nou, pulverizatoarele.

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Ulterior, inprestigioasa revista de specialitate Sprechsaal a promovat cristalurile de Jizera ca fiind de ne-egalat in privinta cantitatii distribuite in intreaga lume. La acea vreme, in productia de cristaluri din regiune erau implicate de persoane numai operatia de presare a ciucurilor de candelabru se desfasura in 40 de ateliere.

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Cauzele acestei situatii erau productia excesiva si capriciile modei. Totusi, catre situatia s-a ameliorat, cristalurile ramanand una dintre cele mai importante ramuri ale industriei din Jablonec. Tocmai in aceasta perioada au aparut in aceasta regiune cristalurile dating inkwells arta.

Productia traditionala dating inkwells pastrat, insa a fost treptata provocata de concurenta produselor mai ieftine.

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Industria a suferit o majora depresiune indatorata crizei economice mondiale. Doar cristalurile de arta au reusit sa ocoleasca criza. Apoi, timp de 5 ani, cristalurile au trecut printr-o perioada de re-vitalizare absoluta. O alta calamitate, sub forma celui de al Doilea Razboi Mondial, a lovit industria intre si Ea a culminat, insa, cu transformarea zonei muntoase Jizera, pana atunci sub ocupatie germana, in teritoriu ceh.

Aceste companii erau reunite in intreprinderi nationale inca inainte de Cristalurile au ramas un produs popular chiar si dupa schimbarile politice, insa interesul se indrepta preponderent catre identitate dating inkwells de dating de dinainte celui de al doilea razboi mondial. Intreprinderile de stat au disparut dupa Ornela Company Limited a devenit succesoarea Intreprinderii Dating inkwells sklárny in si a ramas cel mai mare producator de cristaluri din zona.

Compania Ornela a fost dizolvata inan in care a fost infiintata o noua companie, Jablonex Group. Existau doua tipologii: pe de o parte, sticla presata cu ornamentatii bogat profilate in relief, inspirate de opera lui René Lalique si, pe de alta parte, sticla de lux pre-presata sau suflata si taiata, dar fara decoratie si cu suprafata neteda, folosita mai ales in context casnic.

Productia de cristaluri de arta a fost ulterior preluata de alte companii, mai cu seama Curt Schlevogt din Jablonec nad Nisou, administrata de ginerele lui H. Hoffman, Henry G. Schlevgot, detinatorul companiei Curt Schlevogt, si-a intitulat colectia de cristaluri de arta, prima prezentata la Targul din Leipzig dindupa numele fiicei sale.

Suma prototipurilor si a combinatiilor auxiliare au totalizat a fost mai mare de Unele modele au fost preluate in de la compania lui Heinrich Hoffmann, al carei proprietar era tatal primei sotii a lui Schlevogt, Charlotte, mama lui Ingrid. Marile transformari ce au insotit transferurile de proprietati cauzate de decretele presedintelui Beneš si constituirea unei administratii nationale au afectat si colectia INGRID dupa Acesteia i-au fost treptat adaugate colectiile altor companii, in dating inkwells Joseph Schmidt din Příchovice si Johann Umann in Potočná.

Una dintre consecintele schimbarilor social-politice din a fost si dizolvarea intreprinderii Jablonecké sklárný. Unele dintre acestea au ramas in proprietatea Jizerské sklo a. L Lučany nad Nissou parte din Ornela incepand din si Vitrum s. Janov nad Nissou fondata in Atelierul de finisare František Halama, redeschis in Železný Brod a reclamat, atunci, proprietatea asupra tiparelor originale.

Glassware thus obtained withstood comparison to similar hand crafted luxury items from the point of view of quality, uraniu thorium dating the added dating inkwells of greater affordability. The perfume bottles, inkwells and table accessories produced in the region successfully made their way onto world markets due to the innovative and highly competitive methods devised dating inkwells the engineers, fitters and glassmakers from the Jizera Mountains as well as to the foresight and acumen of local entrepreneurs and businessmen.

Bohemian crystal glass has always drawn its strength from the quality of the local raw materials and the precisely crafted metal moulds. Crystal glass that did not lose its quality through solarisation i.

This glass could be shaped without any great difficulty by blowing, pressing or dating inkwells it into metal moulds. Products were hand-cut or usually only re-cut after pressing, which lowered the price without affecting the quality.

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Two distinct processes were employed in the production of Bohemian crystal glassware: panel cutting and pressing. Whilst the first type is basically blown glass shaped using a mould and then further refined, the second draws on the pressing technology by using moulds with a plug or pressing tongs.

However, creative designs and able dating în cornwall uk are intrinsic to the production process, differentiating between crystal and common pressed glass. Crystal dating inkwells can be divided into three basic categories. The first consists of all types of bottles, the second category is chandelier glass, and the third is domestic ware, ranging from paperweights, inkwells, rulers, to various small decorative and utility glass items, wine and water glasses, vases, etc.

Bangles were also classified under crystalware. Towards the end of the 19th century an astonishing sales increase of the latter led to the development of a separate branch of production.

Sustained market demand in crystal glass from the region resulted in an annual production of about one million chandelier trimmings alone in the first third of the 19th century. The flourishing of the industry was evident in the increasingly higher number of workshops in the area: around cutting workshops and 15 pressing workshops were active at that time.

In there were cutting workshops and 24 glass pressing workshops in the Jablonec area. However, the production of trimmings did not rise over the level of dating inkwells million per year. The world economic crisis of resulted in a short but sharp decline.

Once the demand for crystal glassware rose again, the most sought after items were paperweights, inkwells, scent bottles and later atomisers. The early s saw glass bangles being exported from the Jizera Mountains, mainly to India. In the prestigious glass magazine Sprechsaal praised crystal glassware from the Jizera Mountains considering it unrivalled in terms of the quantity of produce found throughout the world. At that time the crystal glass industry formed the livelihood for people in the region the production of chandelier trimmings still led the way, with 40 pressing shops active.

Over production and changing fashion were the main reasons behind these. However, the situation improved after and crystal glassware remained one of the most important branches of industry in Jablonec.

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The First World War severely marked the industry but by the end of the s no less than refining and finishing crystal workshops were again active in the Jizera Mountains, employing some people. It was at this time that the region opened to what is known as artistic crystal glassware.

While the traditional range of produce was not discontinued, the industry had to meet the ever more challenging competition of the cheap pressed goods. The depression along with major shifts in fashion deeply affected the industry.

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The artistic range was the dating inkwells one capable to make it through the crisis to any degree. Five years later crystal glassware made a successful come back calculator online de dating the industry once again. This did not last long, as the devastating events of the Second World War shaped the scene between and and culminated by the end of the war with the transformation of the once-German Jizera Mountains into sovereign Czech territory.

Even before these companies were merged into major national enterprises.

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This process led to the establishment of the Krystalerie Crystalware national enterprise, incorporated in in the Jablonecké dating inkwells Dolní Polubný national enterprise previously the Josef Riedel Company.

Despite the huge political change, crystal remained a popular good, with demand focusing to a large degree on designs dating back to the period prior to the Second World War. In spite of this, from the s onwards attention was devoted to new designs in the Jizera Mountains, often stimulated by the state export company Skloexport.

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After state enterprises were disbanded. In the Ornela Company Limited became successor to the Jablonecké sklárny enterprise and remained the largest producer of crystal goods in the region. In the year the Ornela Company Ltd. One stream of production comprised pressed glass with richly profiled relief decoration inspired by the work of the French artist René Lalique; the other drew on the domestic tradition of panel-cut glass and included luxury pre-pressed and cut or blown-and-cut glass with smooth walls and no decoration.

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In Heinrich Hoffmann aptly defined the very sense of this production as being to give even the less well-off the chance to decorate their homes with tasteful glass pieces of high artistic value. Other companies, particularly that of Curt Schlevogt from Jablonec nad Nisou, took up the production of crystal goods of high artistic quality. Schlevogt, owner of the Curt Schlevogt Company, named his collection of artistic crystal glass after dating inkwells daughter Ingrid.

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The collection was first presented at the Leipzig Fair in The overall number of actual designs and their combinations totalled more than one thousand. The dramatic societal changes and property transfers that ensued from the Beneš Decrees of along with the creation of a national administration in nationalised enterprises left their imprint on the INGRID collection as well.

This gradually came to incorporate the collections of other companies, in particular those of Josef Schmidt in Příchovice and Johann Umann in Potočná. This enterprise basically administered the factories of the former Josef Riedel Company.

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Some moulds remained the property of Jizerské sklo a. Lučany nad Nisou also part of Ornela from onwards and Vitrum s.

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Janov nad Nisou founded in The re-opened František Halama refining and finishing factory in Železný Brod then reclaimed possession of its own original moulds.

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