Cercetări arheologice în necropola romano-bizantină Callatis. Des recherches archéologiques dans la nécropole romano-byzantine.
Evidenţa ceramică Des observations récentes sur le site antique de Tuzla-Phare dép. L'évidence céramique……… Unele aspecte privind locuirea medievală timpurie Archaeological Investigations in the extra muros Area of Ulmetum Fortification.
Descoperiri noi The Medieval Precinct from Hârșova. New Discoveries Zugehörigkeitsrechte Fremder von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Oscar Print, Ploiești,p. Dassius, urn-sarcophagus, reliquary, Durostorum-Dorostol, early Christian history.
Cuvinte cheie: Sf. Dassius, sarcofag-urnă, relicvariu, Durostorum-Dorostol, creștinism timpuriu. Abstract: The martyr history of St. Dassius of Durostorum respectively of his relics is in attention of leading European scientists for more than a century.
In several articles and monographs in recent years prof. Atanasov updated the theme of St. Dassius of Durostorum. New reading of history discussed in this article is based on a remarkable monument.
This is the sarcophagus of St. They are mainly from Asia Minor, but the closest analogies are outlined in Aphrodisian group - dating from the 2nd c. AD to the late antiquity, but certainly the 3 rd-4 th century is the peak of this fashion.
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Therefore, seeing this wonderful performance, we have to assume that it is made in Durostorum following an Asia Minor prototype, or imported from Asia Minor in a Durostorum stonemason atelier. The other idea of this article is to restore this historic picture of the relics of St.
Dassius and the fate of the sarcophagus, in which they were stored. After his execution on November 20ththe 29 dating 20 of St.
Dassius seems to have been placed in a sarcophagus and buried by Christians in Durostorum. Given the new policy of the early Christian church at the end of the 4th — beginning of 5th c. AD bishops launch the initiative to put the relics of saints — in confessio under the altar table.
Due to Avar invasions at the end of the 6th century AD, the urn-sarcophagus of St. Dassisus may have been transferred to Constantinople. Most scientists, who are touching the subject, adopted that the reliquary of 29 dating 20. Dassius was transported from Dorostol directly to the Italian city of Ancona.
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Atanasov already rejected that possibility, at least, because at the end of the 6th century AD the Greek language was not well known in Central Italy Ancona is not far from the capital Rome where the Latin language completely dominated. Most likely the urn-sarcophagus with the relics of St.
Dassius were transported to Ancona at the beginning of the 13th c. AD, after mass looting of 29 dating 20 by the fourth Crusade April 13th, Rezumat: Istoria martiriului Sf. Dassius din Durostorum, respectiv a moaştelor sale, se află în atenţia marilor cercetători europeni de mai bine de un secol.
În ultimii ani, prof. Atanasov a actualizat, în mai multe articole şi monografii, problematica Sf. Dassius din Durostorum. Noua perspectivă istorică, abordată în acest articol, se bazează pe un monument remarcabil. Este vorba de sarcofagul Sf. Ele provin, în mare parte, din Asia Mică, dar analogiile cele mai apropiate sunt evidenţiate de grupul aphrodisian - datând din secolul al II-lea p. Aşadar, privind această deosebită realizare artistică, presupunem că a fost realizată în Durostorum, după un prototip al monumentelor Asiei Mici, sau importată din Asia Mică de un atelier sculptural din Durostorum.
Totodată articolul îşi propune să refacă istoria moaştelor Sf. Dassius şi soarta sarcofagului în care au fost păstrate. După martiriul său din 20 noiembriese pare că trupul Sf. Dassius a fost depus într-un sarcofag de către creştinii din Durostorum. După triumful creştinătăţii, aşa cum s-a întâmplat în multe locuri, a fost ridicat un martirium deasupra mormântului Sf.
Având în vedere noua politică a bisericii creştine de la sfârşitul secolului IV — începutul secolului V p. Chr, episcopii au luat iniţiativa de a pune moaştele sfinţilor — în confessio sub masa altarului. În urma invaziilor avare de la sfârşitul secolului al VI-lea p.
Dassius se pare că a fost transferată la Constantinopol. Majoritatea cercetătorilor care tratează această temă adoptă ipoteza conform căreia racla Sf. Dassius a fost transportată de la Dorostol direct către oraşul italian Ancona. Atanasov a respins deja această posibilitate, măcar din cauza faptului că, la sfârşitul secolului al VI-lea, limba greacă nu era bine cunoscută în Italia Centrală Ancona nu se află departe de capitala Romaunde limba latină domina total.
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Cel mai probabil, urna-sarcofag cu moaştele Sf. The martyrdom history of St. The many dozens of articles in encyclopedic dictionaries of Christian uni pup speed dating and archeology 29 dating 20 be added to this2. Pillinger published a monograph summarizing the achievements of several generations of historians, theologians and archaeologists, which represented a new beginning 3. I tried to update the theme for the life of St.
Dassius in several articles and monographs in recent years to which there is something to add, and this article is just another attempt in this direction 4. Indeed there are many written sources for the legendary life-story and martyrdom of St. In conclusion, we point out a remarkable monument, which undoubtedly is the inscription on St. There is a douglasville dating whether the story is real, but the above discussed urn-sarcophagus of St.
Dassius, with accompanying inscription held today at the museum Diotseziano, near Ancona cathedral, is indirect evidence of its truth. This unique monument is made from pale yellow marble, with four Corinthian columns and capitals, placed at the corners and with the crosses on the two long sides. The cover is of another type gray alpha femeie de întâlnire. Its form is roof-like constructed, divided on two gables and four corner acroteria.
On the front side of the roof, over the tiles, three Latin crosses are sculptured, and between them a very clear Greek text is engraved that researchers unanimously read: 1 CUMONTp. Menologium Graecorum Basilii Porphyrogenitip.
The attempts to see this original monument from Late Antiquity 4th—6th century as a later forgery of the fifteenth century have been refuted a long time ago. AD or earlier.
We have to pay special attention to the decoration of the bed of the sarcophagus and in particular to the only decorative element — spiral fluted columns tordierte Saeule — ger. From Roman 29 dating 20 only two examples are known to us — from Ulpia Oescus and Marcianopolis. They are result of working with import stone materials — for example; in Marcianopolis it is sure the kind of Proconnesian marble.
Therefore, research on the production of the fluted columns in Roman Thrace is a complicated problem. There are, however, two early Byzantine details, which at first glance can be given as analogies for St. There are two columns of altar tables, one probably from Ulpia Ratiaria, stored in Vidin Museum and another, from Vratsa Museum, probably from Lyutibrod region.
A number of them are stored in a variety of collections from around the world Therefore, seeing this wonderful performance, 29 dating 20 must assume that it is made in Durostorum, following the Asia Minor prototype, or it is imported from Asia Minor to Durostorum from an Asia Minor stone-workshop.
Probably, our example imitates precisely the Aphrodisian group sarcophagi or those monuments of Pamphylia — from Perge, for example Fig. Many architectonically made sarcophagi were found in the Imperial capital Rome and in Italy, but most of them are 29 dating 20 works of Anatolian masters. These are urns-sarcophagi jamshedpur dating sarcophagi with beds designed architectonically with spiral fluted Corinthian columns and covers, made with acroteria on the corners, adorned with palmettos without bandage on the lower ends of leaves or additional floral motifs.
The other two examples are from Copenhagen Fig. Regarding the stylistic features and the carving of the bed, we have good reason to date it within the late Roman era: 3 rd — 4th c.
Moreover, the crosses on the sides of the bed look like they are 29 dating 20 later and this could be the result of reuse of the marble bed in the Early Christian era. And about the analysis of the cover of the urn-sarcophagus it is obvious that it is a later construction, after the original coverage has been damaged or broken apart. We have noted above that it was carved from a different type of marble, because the sculptor did not have Proconnesian or other high quality marble.
According to the inscription and crosses, it can be dated within the 4th c.
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The crosses over the cover are in relief and they are undoubtedly carved with the whole construction of the eaves. But it is important to mention that an architectural decorative pattern copied from a very early Roman era, which, unlike the bed, this time is unmistakable as chronology and production area.
The acroteria, decorated with palmettos without bandage on the lower parts, are characteristic for Asia Minor sarcophagi from the Hadrianic era. Once the sarcophagus was published by F. Pellegrino and St. Flavian and some others.
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Darius martyr, who was a soldier. Indeed, this inscription is copied and translated at the end of the fifteenth century by the famous humanist Antonio Constanzo Except the illusion that Dorostol is a 29 dating 20 name, not the city, this prevents them to make necessary historical connections and conclusions.
New evidence that after the urn-sarcophagus with the relics of St. Dassius was stored in a large sarcophagus is a passage from the story of martyr St. The relics of St. Pellegrino were found inside, together with the relics of St. Dassius, St. Herculaneum, St. Martin and St. Fabio from Ancona. Thanks to them, many people received salvation, which among other things led to the resurrection of the memory of St. Based on these sources, we can define the following picture.
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Dassius seems to have been placed in a coffin and buried by Christians in Durostorum. It is known that Roman law 29 dating 20 29 dating 20 right of sepulcher in regulated cemeteries outside the city walls for everyone, even for criminals After the triumph of Christianity Edict of Milan inas in many places, over the grave of St. Dassius a martirium will be erected. It is probably similar to the martyrium found a decade ago under the building of what is today the Language School in Silistra of other three Dorostolean martyrs — St.
Maximus, St. Dada and St. Quintilian After major destruction in Durostorum during the Gothic invasions in the late 4th century life was fading and it looks that the martiriums were desecrated and destroyed. In the 5th century Durostorum recovered, but planning is already closely associated with the Christian theory and practice The city established itself as the episcopal chair and a cathedral was built and some new churches It was registered in rule Nr.
Even calling that 29 dating 20 martiriums not containing relics of the martyrs proved to be destroyed. Bishops themselves have an interest in martiriums with scattered relics of martyrs to be concentrated in the temples.
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Furthermore, by the consecration of the church it is required in 29 dating 20 to place relics of saints — in confessio under the altar table or in reliquaries in front of the kanzel Dassius were reburied, removed from the sarcophagus in the primary grave-martirium. Definitely, according to the shap e, theurn repeats the forms of a sarcophagus, but it is not a sarcophagus in the full sense of the primary burial, because the dimension in length is only 1.
The construction style of the earlier lower half of the urn-sarcophagus, with the characteristic spiral-fluted columns, suggests that the removal of relics from the suburban martirium to the urban church and their placing in the urn- reliquary happened at the end of the 4th or early 5th century AD. It is remarkable that at the end of the 4th century when, considering the style, we can date the reliquary, the first bishop of Durostorum — Mercurianus 23 was enthroned.